Minimally invasive surgery, also often known as laparoscopic or keyhole surgery to patients, has recently been developed in the field of urologic surgery with the advancement of engineering and computer technologies. … One application of minimally invasive surgery/laparoscopy is kidney cancer removal.
Urogynecology is a sub-specialty of Gynecology, and in some countries is also known as Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery. A urogynecologist manages clinical problems associated with dysfunction of the pelvic floor and bladder. Pelvic floor disorders affect the bladder, reproductive organs, and bowels.
Urology is a surgical subspecialty that manages the diseases of the urinary tract. … The urinary tract consists of the kidneys and the adjacent adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, male prostate, urethra and male testicles. … In particular this includes urinary and prostate infections